The State of Jammu and Kashmir falls inside the fantastic north-western, complex of the Himalayan ranges with marked alleviation variant, snow-capped summits, antecedent drainage, complex geological structure and rich temperate vegetation and fauna.
Kashmir or the Jhelum Valley is situated among the Pir Panjal range and the Zanskar range and has a place of 15220 square km. It is bounded on all sides by way of mountains. The river Jhelum, which flows out from the spring at Verinag in Anantnag district, passes thru this Valley at a very slow speed and in the long run, flows out thru a slim gorge at Baramulla. Districts of Srinagar, Anantnag, Baramulla, Kupwara, and Pulwama lie in this valley. The common top of the valley is 1850 meters above sea level but the surrounding mountains, which are always snow-clad, rise from 3 to 4 thousand meters above sea level. The surface of the valley is apparent and abounds with springs, lakes and health resorts.
Beyond the lush green meadows, Jammu and Kashmir are likewise well-known for its Snow Capped Mountains. The peaks of the mountain deliver it a completely unique charm making it extra attractive than Switzerland. These mountains have a remarkable geophysical significance in Jammu and Kashmir. Most of the peaks remain blanketed with snow in the course of the 12 months. The predominant peaks situated in Jammu & Kashmir are:
Pir Panjal Range:
The Pir Panjal Range is a set of mountains that lie inside the Inner Himalayan region, from east-southeast to west-northwest across the Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir where the average elevation varies from 1,400 m (4,600 ft) to 4,100 m (13,500 ft). It is the largest range of the lower Himalayas that is positioned close to the bank of the Sutlej River. The Gulmarg in Kashmir lies on this range.
It separates Kashmir valley from the outer Himalayas and is about 2621Kms in length and 50Kms in breadth. The well-known Banihal bypass (2832mts) lies inside the form of a tunnel on its peak, it stays covered with snow during winter. ‘Jawahar Tunnel’ has been built here which has a height of 2200mts above sea level. The tunnel is 2825mts long and it changed into opened for site visitors on twenty-second Dec 1956. On the alternative end of this range lie Baramula bypass (1582mts) and Hajipir skips (2750mts). During 1965 Indo-Pak conflict, the Indian military had occupied this pass. Later on, it was surpassed over to Pakistan.
Karakoram (8615 M) and Kyunlun Ranges:
Both mountain ranges lie to the north and north-east of the State and separate it from Russian Turkistan and Tibet. The Karakoram is the biggest mountain range throughout the borders of Pakistan, India, and China located in the regions of Gilgit – Baltistan, Ladakh and Xinjiang location. It is one of the Greater Ranges of Asia, a part of the extra Himalaya whilst north of the actual Himalaya Range.
The Karakoram is home to the very best awareness of peaks over 8000m in peak to be discovered anywhere on earth inclusive of K2, the second highest height of the world (8,611 m/28,251 ft). People of Ladakh pass through Karakoram pass (5352mts) and Nubra bypass (5800mts) whilst going to Chinese Turkistan and Khattan. One can attain Tibet from Ladakh through Khardungla bypass (5557mts) and Changla pass (5609mts).
Toshmaindan (4270mts) and Kajinag (3700mts) mountains lie inside the Inner Himalayas. They remain clad with snow at some point of the yr, however, during summer season whilst the snow melts, the water flows down into the Jhelum River. It forms the line of control between India and Pakistan in Handwara and has a height of 15524 ft. Mostly it remains snow clad most of the time. On the top of it stands the historical Kajinag spring and Satkohl Nag which have been supplying water to the areas of Kehmil, Puhru, Mawar and Talar rivers and some of the water is going to Pakistan thru Nowkote.
Affarwat Gulmarg valley:
This Mountain spreads via the Gulmarg valley. It lies on its peak, from which Nullah Nagal comes out and flows down into the Wular Lake. It is the world’s maximum gondola ski-carry which gives a wide-ranging experience. The ropeway stretching connects Kongdoori valley with Afarwat. It’s the world’s highest cable car the use of gondolas and the simplest one within the world that takes skiers and tourists to a peak of 4,390 m. Afarwat is well-known for winter sports inclusive of snowboarding. It additionally offers a splendid view of the Kashmir Valley and the Himalayan range. You can also visit Alpather Lake, which typically stays frozen until June. The Lake lies throughout the Apharwat peak.