Himalayan glacier

The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia that separates the Indian subcontinent’s plains from the Tibetan plateau. The range has many of the highest peaks on Earth, including Mount Everest, the highest peak. The Himalayas include more than fifty mountains at an altitude of 7,200 m (23,600 ft), including ten of the fourteen 8,000-meter peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia

The large ranges of Central Asia, including the Himalayas, contain the world’s third largest deposit of ice and snow after Antarctica and the Arctic. The Himalayan range comprises about 15,000 glaciers that store about 12,000 km3 (2,900 cu mi) of fresh water. Its glaciers include the Gangotri and Yamunotri (Uttarakhand) and Khumbu glaciers (Mount Everest region), Langtang glaciers. (Langtang region) and Zemu (Sikkim).

Due to the latitude of the mountains near the Tropic of Cancer, the permanent snow line is typically one of the highest in the world at around 5,500 m (18,000 ft). In contrast, the equatorial mountains in New Guinea, the Rwenzoris and Colombia have a snow line some 900 m (2.950 ft) lower. Despite their closeness to the tropics, the greater Himalayan regions are snowbound throughout the year and form the sources of several big perennial rivers.

Scientists have been monitoring a notable increase in the rate of glacier retreat throughout the region as a result of climate change in recent years. For example, glacial lakes have been rapidly forming on the surface of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalayas over the past few decades. While this impact will not be recognized for many years, it could possibly lead to catastrophe for the hundreds of millions of individuals who depend on the glaciers to feed the rivers during the dry seasons.

Four seasons of Kashmir

Four seasons of Kashmir

Four seasons of Kashmir, Known for its stunning climate in all throughout the year. features a typical European climate that can widely be categorized into four seasons as SPRING, SUMMER, AUTUMN and WINTER.

SPRING – March to ending April – (15-18 Celsius during Day) to (0 to 5 degree Celsius in nights)
The whole valley comes alive in this time with velvety green grasses, a mustard field in full bloom and blossoms after blossoming of almond, cherry, apple, peach, pears, pansies, narcissi, daises and a million grass flowers carpet the ground. Throughout the valley, thousands of fruits and flowers burst into bloom exuding and alluring fragrance. One can see miles and miles of mustard fields draped in Yellow and orchards full of multi-hued blossoms. The Climate of Jammu and Kashmir at this time of the year is ideally suited to thoroughly enjoy the beauty of the place.
The most interesting event in this season is the Tulip Garden blossom – which starts around mid march and ends by 1st or 2nd week in April, depending on the heat intensity. And that is a spectacular that any visitor to Kashmir and Srinagar city would not want to miss.

SUMMER – May to August – (20-30 Celsius during Day) to (15 – 20 degree Celsius in nights)
Temperatures rise slightly and the Climate of Kashmir valley is unbelievably lovely at this time of the year. The gushing streams, majestic lakes, the maple Tree groves (locally known as Chinar), the forests all appear very enticing in the summers. Fruits are ripe and in plenty. Tourists can also visit the Orchards and assist the villagers in Apple and other fruit pickings. In and Around Srinagar you may be required to wear light woollens or heavy cotton clothing. The whole valley is like a painter’s canvas with a mosaic of varying shades of green – ice fields, meadows, trees, etc and Srinagar with its lakes and waterways is a heaven after the scorching heat of the Indian plains.

AUTUMN – September to November – (18-25 Celsius during Day) to (10-15 degree Celsius in nights)
The most awaited season in Jammu and Kashmir sets in the month of September. It is autumn, the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness. Everything turns to gold. The sight of the landscape has a magnetic appeal then. The red-carpeted gardens are a treat to the eyes. Temperatures rise to a maximum of 23 degrees in the morning but the nights are relatively colder. The weather is very conducive for the tourists to take delight in the sights, sounds and smell of this idyllic land. The vibrant valleys, the rustle of the fallen leaves, the fragrance of flowers are there to enchant you. The onset of autumn, perhaps Kashmir’s loveliest season, is towards September when green turns to gold and then to russet and red. The highest day temperatures in September are around 23oC and night temperatures dip to 10oC by October and further drop by November, when heavy woollens are essential.

WINTER – December to February – (5 to 10 Celsius during Day) to (-4 to 2 degree Celsius in nights) Winter starts in the month of December and it is extremely cold then. Even though the trees have a bare look and the beauty of the hued gardens no longer catches the eye, there is an altogether different charm in the surroundings. The upper reaches are snow covered and become a visual treat to eyes, the city of Srinagar also receives snow towards the mid of January – February and overall the whole landscape is transformed. This is the best time for Skiing enthusiasts to enjoy the beautiful slopes of Gulmarg and other places around Srinagar.

Kashmir in the winter season: the best pictures ones you can lay your eyes on!
Ah, snowfall in Kashmir! It is a magnificent thing that transforms Kashmir into a white-carpeted heaven, verily India’s own Switzerland. The joy of travelling to Kashmir in winter season is an experience indescribable. As the excitement of the holiday season is building up fast, signalling us to plan our winter vacation soon, we bring up a few captivating experiences and Kashmir pictures in winter to make you fall in love with the region, all over again.
Gulmarg gondola, the coolest cable car ride ever!
If you get on-board a gondola cable car in Gulmarg, know that you are in luck. Feast your eyes on the panoramic beauty of Kashmir, about which countless poets have sung in their writings. A gondola ride in Gulmarg really has something for everyone. Vacationers heading out to Kashmir ought to go for a gondola cable car ride for unforgettable views and a handy camera to capture all the magic.
Honeymoon when it’s snowfall time in Kashmir!
Kashmir is a heaven on the Earth and that’s the reason why it is a dream place to visit for the newlyweds. Plan a trip during your snowfall in Kashmir, including visits to Srinagar, Gulmarg, Pahalgam and Sonamarg, and you will have all that you could practically imagine for a fabulous honeymoon. Plus, you get to take your pick between the choicest resorts located in all these regions.

The joy of Ladakh in winter

If the idea of experiencing Mother Nature from close quarters appeals to you, Ladakh should rank high on your must-visit list. The picturesque region embraces one and all; it has a laid-back quaintness to spare, but is also blessed with quite a rich history. Adventurous visitors will have enough to explore in winters in Ladakh, so will solitude seekers.
Unlimited skiing and snowboarding in Kashmir
A winter vacation in Kashmir should include some snow, and a good skiing session is a must to make the most of your holiday out there. Gulmarg is a haven for skiers and there are ideal facilities in place in those powder-covered regions that are all well worth the trip. All you need to do is, get your ski gear, invite your buddies and get set to hit the slopes!
As a bonus, you get to enjoy the hot kehwa (also kahwah) and Kashmiri biryani served by the dhabas situated close to the skiing spots, and also the warm hospitality of the locals.
Do not miss the Chadar Trek
Picture this: you are camping on the banks of a frozen river and sipping hot kehwa whilst gazing steadily at the captivating clear, midnight blue star-lit sky? This fantasy could turn into a reality by taking a trek known as the Chadar Trek. Trekkers have to cross the frozen Zanskar River and the snow-covered mountain trails to reach the abode of beauty called Zanskar Valley. Just make sure your body is fit enough to endure the rigours of this demanding trek.
The ‘Kanger’ experience in Kashmir winter
Sure, Kashmir looks beautiful in the winters, but when the chill gets too hard to bear, the locals warm up to the kanger (also kangri), a conventional heater used in Kashmir and Himachal. It is a small earthen pot woven around with pliable twigs of a willow tree and filled with burning charcoal. It is carried underneath traditional Kashmiri garb to stay warm and cosy. A whole piece of charcoal is good to last for a day. Get one for yourself to keep frost bites at bay.
Go for warm bites when it snows in Kashmir
You need kanger to keep your body warm, but it is the Kashmiri harissa and a cup of hot kehwa that would do the job of warming up your soul as well. Since Kashmir is predominantly a non-vegetarian region, locals take joy in feasting on a dish made of goat meat or mutton. It is slow-cooked on fire overnight and seasoned with spices and then served with a traditional naan-bread.
Kehwa, on the other hand, is an aromatic brew made of eleven locally-grown herbs. It is served with sheermal that is a savoury, crispy and salted bread. Sheer delight!


Ladakh is a high-altitude region on an average altitude of 4’000 m. the temperatures are extreme Himalayan and can change very quickly. The days can be hot with strong Sun Shine and nights equally cool. We always advise our Guests to bring very good sun protection ( Creams, Hat, Glasses, Gloves) and warm clothing with you, so that you can layer up and down during the day. Himalayan Climate being typically dry – facial cream and body lotion will help maintain the skin properly. The best part of the Ladakh landscape is the villages – which look like an oasis in the otherwise dry and arid landscape.
The weather of Ladakh remains cold and chilly for the most part of the year and the best time to visit is from Mid May to September.
While as it is hard to distinguish four seasons in Ladakh, the Spring and Autumn are more like a fresh breeze after a long days walk – they come for a very short time and go signalling the onset of Hot summer and long – long winter.

SPRING – April to May – Temperature rises and the ground thaws. The farming activities start and the local population prepares the fields and gardens to plant the seedlings. Some lower passes become crossable – however, it is still snow covered scenery all around on the mountains.

SUMMER – June to September Most of the tourists are visiting Ladakh during these months because the weather is pleasant and stable also, few monastic festivals take place. An ideal time for planning trekking or expedition, the temperatures in summer range between min. 5°, max. 35° Celsius.

WINTER – October to March The temperatures constantly dropping to the lowest grades in January or February (Nubra valley and dha-hanu -15°, leh -20°, changtang -30°). It is not until March that the cold temperatures are gone. Although the sun shines during the day, it is not warming you up. However, there are many possibilities for the well-prepared winter visitors: most of the monastic festivals take place then and are attended by the locals in their traditional dress. If the Zanskar river is frozen, experienced trekkers and mountaineers can do the adventurous chadar trek. Also, mountaineers have been known to cross high passes on snowshoes to find decent snowboard or ski destinations.
Ladakh being a Dry Desert – Monsoon is not confined to any particular season as sporadic rainfall may occur at any time.
The best time to visit Ladakh is from May until September, the region’s summer season. At this time, Ladakh is an unparalleled paradise, with clear, stunning views and warm and sunny weather – the average temperature range during the day is about 20–30°C. Keen trekkers usually head to Ladakh during July and August, when the Manali-Leh and Srinagar-Leh highways are open to vehicles. That said, Ladakh is a land bound by two of the world’s highest mountain ranges – the Himalayas and Karakoram – anyone visiting Ladakh, even in the middle of summer, should be prepared for the sharp drop in temperatures at night.

Kashmir Snow Trek

Kashmir-Snow-Trek expedition is an opportunity for the hikers and nature lovers to explore Kashmir hiking in winter. The trail followed is Naranag-Trunkhol-Gangabal. The snow depth ranges from 1 foot in Naranag to 6 foot at Trunkhol. We use gipsy and forest huts for accommodation.
Though trekking in Kashmir is not newest still this expedition is no walk in the park. The first hike is a steep climb through pine forest of Butsheri then a gradual walking through meadows filled in by snow, all collide to create a challenging trek in one of the most beautiful and serene Himalayas of Kashmir.

Places to visit in Kashmir

Places to visit in Kashmir, Srinagar sightseeing

The paradise on earth, Kashmir, has almost everything that nature can offer. In her scenic lap, she nurtures beautiful landscapes, majestic mountains, green valleys, gushing streams, blooming gardens, and sparkling lakes. One Such breath-taking destination is Tosamaidan. An alpine meadow that has been under Army since 1964 and is now open to visit and get enthralled.

Tosamaidan altitude

Located at an altitude of 10170.6 feet, 3100 mt, Tosa Maidan is a breath-taking gem in the heart of Pir Panjal Mountain ranges. A summer meadow frequented by the shepherds and herders with their flock of sheep and cattle, this verdant landscape leaves even Gulmarg far behind in scenic beauty. It is said that Tosa Maidan is one of those pastures which the shepherds of other neighboring countries also used to visit in ancient times. The Mughals used to go to Poonch using this route. It is said that they had constructed a seven-storeyed building Dam-Dam – there.

Distance from Srinagar to tosa maidan

After decades of being utilized by the army as an ordinance testing ground, Tosamaidan is now open for tourists as the lease with the army has expired in 2014.

The region finds mention in historical documents like Tuzk-e-Jahangiri and also in the memoirs of foreign travelers like Hieun Tsang and Fa Hien.

How to reach tosa maidan roadmap

Presently the tourists can reach Tosa maidan from Shunglipora by trekking trail of 12 Km through pine and birch forests enlivened by birds. The peaks of Shin Mahinu (4612 mt) and Shiv Nag (4359 mt) in Tosamaidan offers majestic views, skiing in winter and trekking in summer.

Tosa Maidan is surrounded by gentle slopes and easy gradient that are referred to as writing desk slopes. In and around these ridges, peaks, and slopes, there are quite a few water bodies. One can reach these high altitude sparkling lakes like Daman Sar and Bodh Sar through picturesque trekking trails. Beyond Daman Sar, a trail leads towards the pass of Chini Marg (4050 mt) that goes towards Ponch via Jamian Da Nallah. The trail further leads to the road head of Mandi, a village in Loran valley Poonch. From here one can catch a bus down the valley to Mandi Tehsil. Cattle herders of Poonch use Chini Marg Pass to access the meadow of Tosa Maidan in the lap of Pir Panjal. This pass remains open from June till September as rest of the time weather remains hostile and unfriendly under extreme cold and snow.

On the other hand, these lakes also feed many nullahs that merge to form the Sukhnag River. The icy cold water of the river offers not only delicious trout but also adrenaline-pumping rafting opportunity.

Besides the awe-inspiring beauty, the ridges are also perfect for parasailing and paragliding. Tosa Maidan, being a meadow, is an ideal place for camping and zorbing. Nature lovers can enjoy home stay in one of the many Dhoks that belong to the shepherds and the cattle headers or carry their own tent to enjoy the beauty of Tosa Maidan and camp at any place of their choice.

Around the periphery of Tosa Maidan, there are some villages of historical significance which are worth visiting like, Khag, Drang, Poshkar, Khan Sahib, Beerwah, and Magam. Ahaji Canal and Sursh Canal have been constructed in Tosamaidan to irrigate the fields of District Budgam. The villages of Poshkar and Kachwari also serve as attractive destinations for rural tourism. Here tourists get to experience rural life in its real colors.

The villages located at the foothill of Pir Panjal like Sutharan, Drang, Chill Brass, Zugu Kharyal, Rengzabal, Yari khan offer insight to the simple rural life of Kashmir. Maize and Rice are the pre-dominant crops cultivated by the locals. Horticulture products like apple and walnut also supplement the rural economy.

Information about mountains and highest peaks in Jammu and Kashmir

The State of Jammu and Kashmir falls inside the fantastic north-western, complex of the Himalayan ranges with marked alleviation variant, snow-capped summits, antecedent drainage, complex geological structure and rich temperate vegetation and fauna.

Kashmir or the Jhelum Valley is situated among the Pir Panjal range and the Zanskar range and has a place of 15220 square km. It is bounded on all sides by way of mountains. The river Jhelum, which flows out from the spring at Verinag in Anantnag district, passes thru this Valley at a very slow speed and in the long run, flows out thru a slim gorge at Baramulla. Districts of Srinagar, Anantnag, Baramulla, Kupwara, and Pulwama lie in this valley. The common top of the valley is 1850 meters above sea level but the surrounding mountains, which are always snow-clad, rise from 3 to 4 thousand meters above sea level. The surface of the valley is apparent and abounds with springs, lakes and health resorts.

Beyond the lush green meadows, Jammu and Kashmir are likewise well-known for its Snow Capped Mountains. The peaks of the mountain deliver it a completely unique charm making it extra attractive than Switzerland. These mountains have a remarkable geophysical significance in Jammu and Kashmir. Most of the peaks remain blanketed with snow in the course of the 12 months. The predominant peaks situated in Jammu & Kashmir are:

Pir Panjal Range:

The Pir Panjal Range is a set of mountains that lie inside the Inner Himalayan region, from east-southeast to west-northwest across the Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir where the average elevation varies from 1,400 m (4,600 ft) to 4,100 m (13,500 ft). It is the largest range of the lower Himalayas that is positioned close to the bank of the Sutlej River. The Gulmarg in Kashmir lies on this range.
It separates Kashmir valley from the outer Himalayas and is about 2621Kms in length and 50Kms in breadth. The well-known Banihal bypass (2832mts) lies inside the form of a tunnel on its peak, it stays covered with snow during winter. ‘Jawahar Tunnel’ has been built here which has a height of 2200mts above sea level. The tunnel is 2825mts long and it changed into opened for site visitors on twenty-second Dec 1956. On the alternative end of this range lie Baramula bypass (1582mts) and Hajipir skips (2750mts). During 1965 Indo-Pak conflict, the Indian military had occupied this pass. Later on, it was surpassed over to Pakistan.

Karakoram (8615 M) and Kyunlun Ranges:

Both mountain ranges lie to the north and north-east of the State and separate it from Russian Turkistan and Tibet. The Karakoram is the biggest mountain range throughout the borders of Pakistan, India, and China located in the regions of Gilgit – Baltistan, Ladakh and Xinjiang location. It is one of the Greater Ranges of Asia, a part of the extra Himalaya whilst north of the actual Himalaya Range.
The Karakoram is home to the very best awareness of peaks over 8000m in peak to be discovered anywhere on earth inclusive of K2, the second highest height of the world (8,611 m/28,251 ft). People of Ladakh pass through Karakoram pass (5352mts) and Nubra bypass (5800mts) whilst going to Chinese Turkistan and Khattan. One can attain Tibet from Ladakh through Khardungla bypass (5557mts) and Changla pass (5609mts).


Toshmaindan (4270mts) and Kajinag (3700mts) mountains lie inside the Inner Himalayas. They remain clad with snow at some point of the yr, however, during summer season whilst the snow melts, the water flows down into the Jhelum River. It forms the line of control between India and Pakistan in Handwara and has a height of 15524 ft. Mostly it remains snow clad most of the time. On the top of it stands the historical Kajinag spring and Satkohl Nag which have been supplying water to the areas of Kehmil, Puhru, Mawar and Talar rivers and some of the water is going to Pakistan thru Nowkote.

Affarwat Gulmarg valley:

This Mountain spreads via the Gulmarg valley. It lies on its peak, from which Nullah Nagal comes out and flows down into the Wular Lake. It is the world’s maximum gondola ski-carry which gives a wide-ranging experience. The ropeway stretching connects Kongdoori valley with Afarwat. It’s the world’s highest cable car the use of gondolas and the simplest one within the world that takes skiers and tourists to a peak of 4,390 m. Afarwat is well-known for winter sports inclusive of snowboarding. It additionally offers a splendid view of the Kashmir Valley and the Himalayan range. You can also visit Alpather Lake, which typically stays frozen until June. The Lake lies throughout the Apharwat peak.

Trip to Ladakh

The Ladakh region, known as ‘Little Tibet’ and the ‘Land of high Passes’ is a large excessive altitude wilderness situated in a little visited corner of far northwest India. Nestled in the mountains between Tibet and Pakistan, this unassuming area is one of the ultimate preserved pockets of ancient Tibetan and Buddhist tradition.
Ladakh has the most spectacular land-scapes of India, and according to many also the most fascinating culture. Being part of the Tibetan Plateau, and bigger than most American states, it is a high altitude desert where rainfall is as sparse as in the Sahara. It is India’s highest inhabited region, with a very slight population which in the eastern part is predominantly Buddhist. Monasteries and palaces hilltops and age-vintage customs and beliefs are still practised, with several festivals being held each year.


Leh is the largest metropolis inside the place and capital of Ladakh. It lies at an altitude of approximately, 500m, sandwiched among the Ladakh and Zanskar mountain ranges. the primary hiking season here falls within the summer season months, from June to September (the alternative of in the Nepalese Himalaya). In season, a regular movement of backpackers and trekkers pass via laid-returned Leh, the gateway to the Indian Himalaya, in seek of routes much less trodden.
Ladakh opened up to international tourism in 1974 and thankfully, due to its remote region, remains unspoiled. The beauty of trekking right here is that you could easily stroll for days, if now not weeks, without passing another trekker or signal of civilisation.

Ladakh history

For nearly 900 years Ladakh existed as an independent kingdom. Its dynasties from the king of old Tibet, but the early colonizers of Ladakh were made up of many races, from the Darads of the Western Himalaya to Tibetan nomads. The kingdom hit its height in the early 17th century when Ladakh became an established trade route between the Punjab and Central Asia. Passing merchants brought in huge amounts of wealth as they stopped en route in Leh with their precious cargoes of textiles, spices, raw silk, carpets and narcotics. Today, the Srinagar to Leh motor-road marks this ancient trade route. It wasn’t until the mid-19th century that Ladakh
was finally annexed to Kashmir, India.

Ladakh Geography and Geology

The Himalaya was born some 90 million years ago as the Eurasian and Indian tectonic plates converged, forcing the Earth’s crust to buckle and uplift to create the Himalayan range and the Tibetan Plateau. The colossal forces and extreme temperatures associated with the collision also caused melting of the Earth’s crust to generate huge granite (igneous) masses of the Ladakh Range. Elsewhere, such as in the Suru and Zanskar Valleys of Ladakh, stratified (thinly layered) sedimentary deposits which once lay on the bed of the Tethys Sea may be seen.  The bewildering beautiful geology of Ladakh has since been further sculpted by natural forces.

Deep winter snows that freeze and crack the rocks, the torrents of summer melt-water, and the strong winds have all contributed to the visual feast of these mountains. Ladakh is a high altitude desert, the majority of which lies at an altitude of over 2,700 metres above sea level. The peaks have risen (and continue to rise) so high that they intercept the path of the famous Indian monsoon clouds, so very little rain falls.

This means the small summer window is perfect for trekking. Singh, the ruler of Jammu at that time, invaded Ladakh in 1834. A decade of war and turmoil ensued, ending with the incorporation of Ladakh (and the neighbouring province of Baltistan) into the newly created State of Jammu & Kashmir. Just over a century later, this union was disturbed by the partition of India, with Baltistan becoming part of Pakistan, while Ladakh remained in India as part of the State of Jammu and Kashmir.

The Markha Valley – Ladakh

The Markha Valley is the traditional Ladakh trek, which takes inside the first-rate of the contrasting scenery that this part of the Himalaya has to offer. Lofty snow-clad peaks above barren hillsides of the excessive altitude wilderness contrast with quite green villages within the valleys which spring to life each summer time. some of the wild camp websites are amidst marmot territory, in which they can be visible scampering across the hillsides. There are numerous river crossings, passes over four,900m and some long days (7-9 hours on foot which includes breaks). The descent to Hemis, Ladakh’s biggest and maximum famous monastery is likewise a real highlight of this path.

Ladakh: Stok Kangri Climb

Stok Kangri is a demanding trek traversing the Ladakh Mountains on a fantastic, rarely trodden route through wild, rugged high-altitude scenery culminating with the ascent of Stok Kangri (6,153m), one of the easiest 6,000m summits in the world. The focus is not all on the summit however. There are stunning wild camps and a staggering variety of scenery, from towering rock cathedrals to fertile river valleys and breathtaking 360 degree panoramic vistas over the Himalaya. The ascent of Stok Kangri itself is optional (an alternative glacier trek is provided for those not wishing to do the climb), making this trek accessible to couples or friends with different trekking experience or capabilities. The summit ascent is technically easy although those wishing to attempt it should  ideally have previous experience of using ice-axe and crampons and walking in a rope team.

Shallabugh wetland

Shallabugh wetland is 16 km northwest of Srinagar and spans across 150 ha. Some of the popular migratory birds visiting the Shallabugh reserve include Geese, Bar Geese, White Heeled Duck, Shoveller, Red-Crested Pochard, White-Eyed Pochard, Common Teal, Pintail, Mallard, Gadwall, Coot, Hoonk and Graylag.  Among these, Pintail, Common Teal, and Gadwall are the birds visiting this wetland in maximum numbers. The wetland together with the marshes is fed by the Sindh River and local runoff.  According to officials, the migratory birds come to Shallabugh wetland far off places like Siberia, Central Asia, Northern Europe, Ladakh, China, and Central Asia.  The average depth of the water varies from 0.5 to 2.0 m. The entire wetland is thronged by game birds particularly during winter months and the wetland also supports the locally important fishery and reed-harvesting industry, which provides excellent opportunities for the local fisherman community. The wetland is an important staging and wintering area for migratory Amatidae and breeding place for a variety of waterfowl species. The flying visitors started to throng to this wetland from the first week of November last and the outward migration is expected to start from March up to mid-April.

One of the best known and most recognizable functions of wetlands is to provide a habitat for birds and other species. While visiting a wetland, you are likely to see a range of waterfowl activity. The value wetlands provide to a bird species greatly depends on water availability, depth, and quality; the availability of food and shelter; and the presence of predators. The presence of surface water and the duration and timing of flooding attracts different bird species.

Hokersar wetland kashmir

Where flora and fauna take turns to enchant you. The wetlands of Kashmir are blessed with unparalleled beauty, and are also home to wide range of plant and animal life.

Migratory birds from Siberia and Central Asia use the wetlands in Kashmir as their transitory camps between September and October and once more around spring.

Avifauna: Migratory geese and ducks consist of Brahminy Duck, Tufted Duck, Gadwall, Garganey, Greylag Goose, Mallard, Common Merganser, Northern Pintail, Common Pochard, Ferruginous Pochard, Red-Crested Pochard, Ruddy Shelduck, Northern Shoveler, Common Teal and Eurasian Wigeon.

Hokersar wetland Kashmir

Hokersar wetland is located at a distance of 10 km from Srinagar. it is spread over an area of 13 . 75 sq. km (1375 ha) in the northwest Himalayan bio geographic province of Kashmir, in the backyard the snow draped pir panjal range with an altitude of 1584 m Hokersar wetland gets water from the doodhganga River. the well and provides shuttling ground for around 68 migratory birds who travel from Leh to the plains of Siberia. The commonly birds include Geese, shovelers, Red-crested Pochancha, white-eyed Pochards, common teals, Egrets, Wigeons, Coots and Grey-lags.

The requisite permissions to visit Hokersar can be obtained from the tourist reception center, Srinagar and also from the wildlife warden of Srinagar oberoi palace.

Kashmir valley historical background

Geologists believe that about 10 crore years have passed once Jammu and Kashmir valley that was once a lake called Satisar,

The lake of goddess Sati, came into its present form. For hundreds of million years Jammu and Kashmir valley remained underneath Tethya sea and therefore the high sedimentary-rock hills seen in the valley now were once below water.

Geologists have come to believe that Jammu and Kashmir valley was earlier affected by earthquakes. Once there was such a devastating earthquake that it bust open the mountain wall at Baramulla. And therefore the water of the Satisar lake flowed out leaving behind lacustrine mud on the margins of the mountains known as karewas. Thus came into existence the oval but irregular Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.

The karewas being, in fact, the remnants of this lake confirm this view. The karewas are found largely to the west of the river Jhelum where these table-lands attain a height of about 380 meters on top of the level of the valley.

These karewas protrude towards the east and look like tongue- shaped spurs with deep ravines. Ancient legends and widespread traditions say that Samdimat Nagar, capital of the kingdom of Sundra Sena, was submerged as a results of an earthquake, and therefore the water that stuffed the area shaped the Wular Lake, the biggest freshwater lake in India.

The oldest igneous rocks are still found at Shankaracharya hill. when the whole valley of Kashmir was under water this hill was the primary piece of dry land lying in the form of an igneous island.